Map Sources

Map Sources

Coin Deposits

Gaul: hoards 200-300 AD
Based on: Haupt, Peter, 2001, Römische Münzhorte des 3. Jhs. in Gallien und den germanischen Provinzen, Provinzialrömische Studien, Grunbach.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Hay, Brendan Maione-Downing

Precious Metal Deposits 200-700 AD

Equivalent Gold Weight (grams - min. estimate)
Based on: Hobbs, R. 2006. Late Roman precious metal deposits, c. AD 200-700: changes over time and space. Oxford: Archaeopress.
DARMC Contributors: Richard Hobbs, Brendan Maione-Downing, Ricardo Salazar-Rey, Ece Turnator,

Deposit Date (terminus post quem)
Based on: Hobbs, R. 2006. Late Roman precious metal deposits, c. AD 200-700: changes over time and space. Oxford: Archaeopress.
DARMC Contributors: Richard Hobbs, Brendan Maione-Downing, Ricardo Salazar-Rey, Ece Turnator,

Weight of Non-coin metals (grams)
Based on: Hobbs, R. 2006. Late Roman precious metal deposits, c. AD 200-700: changes over time and space. Oxford: Archaeopress.
DARMC Contributors: Richard Hobbs, Brendan Maione-Downing, Ricardo Salazar-Rey, Ece Turnator,

Carolingian hoards 751-987 AD

Hoards deposited 769-814 (tpq)
Based on: Coupland S. 2011, "A Checklist of Carolingian Coin Hoards 751-987," Numismatic Chronicle, vol. 171, pp. 203-256, 40 plates.
DARMC Contributors: Simon Coupland, Brendan Maione-Downing

Hoards deposited 815-840 (tpq)
Based on: Coupland S. 2011, "A Checklist of Carolingian Coin Hoards 751-987," Numismatic Chronicle, vol. 171, pp. 203-256, 40 plates.
DARMC Contributors: Simon Coupland, Brendan Maione-Downing

Hoards deposited 841-900 (tpq)
Based on: Coupland S. 2011, "A Checklist of Carolingian Coin Hoards 751-987," Numismatic Chronicle, vol. 171, pp. 203-256, 40 plates.
DARMC Contributors: Simon Coupland, Brendan Maione-Downing

Hoards deposited after 900 (tpq)
Based on: Coupland S. 2011, "A Checklist of Carolingian Coin Hoards 751-987," Numismatic Chronicle, vol. 171, pp. 203-256, 40 plates.
DARMC Contributors: Simon Coupland, Brendan Maione-Downing

Mints C9-10
Based on: Ditchburn, David and MacLean, Simon (eds.) 2007, Atlas of Medieval Europe, 2nd edn, London and New York, p. 46.
DARMC Contributors: Kelly Gibson

Health

Epidemics 300-750 AD
Based on: Stathakopoulos, Dionysios Ch. 2004, Famine and Pestilence in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine Empire: A Systematic Survey of Subsistence Crises and Epidemics, London.
DARMC Contributors: Marlee Chong, Michael McCormick

Environment

The Central Silva Carbonaria: a first-millennium forest changes

Silva Carbonaria Settlements
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Etienne Renard, Julia Wang, Kelly Gibson

Gallo-Roman

Gallo-Roman Archaeological Features
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Etienne Renard, Julia Wang, Kelly Gibson

Gallo-Roman Forest Extent
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Etienne Renard, Julia Wang, Kelly Gibson

Merovingian

Merovingian Archaeological Features
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Etienne Renard, Julia Wang, Kelly Gibson

Merovingian Forest Extent
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Etienne Renard, Julia Wang, Kelly Gibson

850-900

Archaeological Features 850-900
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Etienne Renard, Julia Wang, Kelly Gibson

850-900 Forest Extent
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Etienne Renard, Julia Wang, Kelly Gibson

Roman Climate Historical Evidence
Based on: Michael McCormick, Ulf Büntgen, Mark Cane, Edward Cook, Kyle Harper, Peter Huybers, Thomas Litt, Sturt W. Manning, Paul A. Mayewski, Alexander F. More, Kurt Nicolussi, Willy Tegel 2012. "Climate Change during and after the Roman Empire: Reconstructing the Past from Scientifc and Historical Evidence," Journal of Interdisciplinary History, vol. 43, number 2, pp. 169-220. DOI:10.1162/JINH_a_00379
DARMC Contributors: Michael McCormick, Kyle Harper, Alexander F. More, Kelly Gibson

Precipitation 1000-1500 AD: historical and scientific evidence
Based on: Ulf Büntgen, Willy Tegel, Kurt Nicolussi, Michael McCormick, David Frank, Valerie Trouet, Jed O. Kaplan, Franz Herzig, Karl-Uwe Heussner, Heinz Wanner, Jürg Luterbacher, and Jan Esper, '2500 Years of European climate variability and human susceptibility', Science, 331 (13 January 2011, 2011), pp. 578-582.
DARMC Contributors: Michael McCormick, Ece Turnator, Rena Lauer, Guoping Huang

Rats 1-1500 to Archaeology of Rats 1-1500
Based on: See Zotero database for complete references
DARMC Contributors: Brendan Maione-Downing, Michael McCormick, Alexander F. More

Shipwrecks 1-1500
Based on: See Zotero database for complete references
DARMC Contributors: Anne Marie Creighton, Kelly Gibson, Leland Grigoli, Polina Ivanova, Brendan Maione-Downing, Michael McCormick, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk. Ece Turnator

Loci Ammiani
Based on: Ammianus Marcellinus. "Ammianus Marcellinus," John C. Rolfe, trans.; Seyfarth, Wulfgang. "Der Codex Fuldensis und der Codex E des Ammianus Marcellinus: zur Frage der handschriftlichen Überlieferung des Werkes des letzten römischen Geschichtsschreibers." Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1962.
DARMC Contributors: Marie Kiel, Ece Turnator

Loci Einhardi
Based on: "Annales Regni Francorum." Friedirch Kurze, ed. Monumenta historica Germaniae. Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum. Hannover, 1895.; Cholet, Paul François. "Capitulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Étienne de Baigne (en Saintonge). Paris: L. Clouzot, 1868.; Einhard and Notker the Stammerer. David Ganz, trans. and ed. "Two Lives of Charlemagne." London: Penguin, 2008.; Einhard and Notker the Stammerer. Lewis Thorpe, trans. and ed. "Two Lives of Charlemagne." London: Penguin, 1969.; Einhard. Evelyn Scherabon Firchow and Edwin H. Zeydel, trans. "Vita Karoli Magni: The Life of Charlemagne." Coral Gables: University of Miami Press, 1972.; Einhard. G. Waitz, ed. "Einhardi vita Karolini magni." Scriptores rerum germanicum in usum scholarum ex monumentis Germaniae historicis sepratim editi. Hannoverae et Lipsiae: Impensis bibliopolii haniani, 1911.; Einhard. John F. Collins, ed. "Vita Karoli Magni." Bryn Mawr: Bryn Mawr Collegee, 1984.; Einhard. Louis Halphen, trans. and ed. "Vie de Charlemagne." 3rd ed. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1947.; Einhard. Paul Edward Dutton, trans. and ed. "Charlemagne's Courtier: The Complete Einhard." Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press, 1998.; Einhard. Samuel Epes Turner, trans. "The Life of Charlemagne." Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1960.; Einhard. Samuel Epes Turner, trans. "The Life of Charlemagne." New York: Harper & Brother, 1880. Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Fordham University. January 1999.; Fouracre, Paul. "Frankish Gaul to 814." In "The New Cambridge Medieval History." Rosamond McKitterick, ed. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 85-109.; McKitterick, Rosamond. "Charlemagne: The Formation of a European Identity." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.; Nelson, Janet L. "Kingship and Royal Government." In "The New Cambridge Medieval History." Rosamond McKitterick, ed. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 381-430.; Schmid, Karl, G. Althoff, E. Freise, Dieter Geuenich, F.J. Jakobi, and et al., eds., Die Klostergemeinschaft von Fulda im früheren Mittelalter. Vol. 3 vols. in 5 vols., Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften (München: W. Fink, 1978); Smith, Julia M.H.. "Fines Imperii: The Marches." In "The New Cambridge Medieval History." Rosamond McKitterick, ed. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 169-189.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Hay, Brendan Maione-Downing, Ece Turnator

Roman Empire

Culture and Religion

Bath
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Bishoprics ca. 600
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, pp. 19-23.
DARMC Contributors: Emma Carron, Kelly Gibson, Brendan Maione-Downing, Matthew Polk, Ece Turnator, Janine Wilkinson

Cemetery
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Church and Monastery
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Temple
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Tumulus
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Economy

Ancient Ports and Harbors

Ancient Ports and Harbors (de Graauw)
Based on: de Graauw, A. "Ancient Ports and Harbours, The Catalogue," 4th ed., Port Revel, 2014, pdf. downloadable from A. de Graauw, "Ancient Ports--Ports antiques," website:http://www.ancientportsantiques.com/docs-pdf/
DARMC Contributors: Arthur deGraauw, Brendan Maione-Downing

Ports (Barrington)
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Centuriation
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Estate and Villa
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Market
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Mine and Saltworks
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Production
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Water Wheel
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Natural Features

Oasis
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Reservoir
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Spring
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Whirlpool
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Military

Fort and Tower
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Hillforts NE Gaul
Based on: Brulet, Raymond et al 1995, Forts romains de la route Bavay-Tongres, Louvain-la-Neuve, p. 15.
DARMC Contributors: Chris Blunda, Brendan Maione-Downing

LR Defensive System N Gaul
Based on: Brulet, Raymond 2008, "Fortifications de hauteur et habitat perché de l'Antiquité tardive au début du Haut Moyen-Age entre Fagne et Eifel," Höhensiedlungen zwischen Antike und Mittelalter vonden Ardennen bis zur Adria, 13-70.
DARMC Contributors: Chris Blunda

Wall
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Area w/in 2 Days Road March (Infantry) of Roman Forts
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Brendan Maione-Downing

Infrastructure

Aqueduct
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Canal
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Dam
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Dike
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Well
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Cities and Settlements
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Roads and Transportation

Bridge
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Lighthouse
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Mountain Pass
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Route and Station
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Alexander F. More, Matthew Polk, Shane Bobyricki, Nathaniel Donoghue, Rowan Dorin, Kelly Gibson, Christopher Gilbert, Clare Gillis, Thomas Greene, Jakub J. Kabala, Duncan MacRae, Ricardo Salazar, Rubina Salikuddin, Ece Turnator, Ryan Wilkinson

Roman Roads
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.; Bekker-Nielsen, Tonnes (2004), The Roads of Ancient Cyprus, Copenhagen.
DARMC Contributors: Guoping Huang, Jessica Lavash, Brendan Maione-Downing

Roman Provinces

Provinces (ca. AD117)
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

Provinces (ca. AD 303-324)
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

Provinces (ca. AD500)
Based on: Talbert, Richard J. A. (ed.) 2000, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, Princeton.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

Medieval

Anglo Saxon Sites

Anglo Saxon Occupation
Based on: Helena Hamerow 2012. Rural Settlements and Society in Anglo-Saxon England, Oxford.
DARMC Contributors: Helena Hamerow, Marie Keil

Pre-Roman Occupation
Based on: Helena Hamerow 2012. Rural Settlements and Society in Anglo-Saxon England, Oxford.
DARMC Contributors: Helena Hamerow, Marie Keil

Education

Universities C12-C15
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 64; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, p. 80.
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

Economy

Important Fairs 900-1500
Based on: Ditchburn, David and MacLean, Simon (eds.) 2007, Atlas of Medieval Europe, 2nd edn, London and New York, p. 158.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

Sites associated with early Hanseatic traders, C12-13
Based on: Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 84-5.
DARMC Contributors: Kelly Gibson

 

Christianity

Medieval Monastic Foundations C4-C8
Based on: Meer, Frederik van der. Atlas de l’Ordre cistercien. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1965.
DARMC Contributors: Leland Grigoli

Celtic and Anglo Saxon Monasteries
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 19
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

Cistercian Monasteries
Based on: Bengtson, Hermann, and Vladimir Milojčić, eds. Grosser historischer Weltatlas: Erläuterungen. 4 vols. München: Bayerischer Schulbuch-Verlag, 1996; Cottineau, Dom L.H. Répertoire topo-bibliographique des abbayes et prieurés. 3 vols. Macon: Protat Frères, 1939; Jedin, Hubert, Kenneth Scott Latourette, Hans Quast, and Jochen Martin, eds. Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Freiburg: Herder, 1970; Prinz, Friedrich. Frühes Mönchtum im Frankenreich: Kultur und Gesellschaft in Gallien, den Rheinlanden und Bayern am Beispiel der monastischen Entwicklung. München: R. Oldenbourg, 1965.
DARMC Contributors: Leland Grigoli

Cluniac Houses
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 47; Liebrich, I. 1987, “Die Klosterreform von Cluny,” in Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, pp. 35-6.
DARMC Contributors: Kelly Gibson

Dominican Houses 1216-1500
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 59; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, p. 30.
DARMC Contributors: Kelly Gibson, Konstantina Karterouli, Ece Turnator

Franciscan Houses ca. 1300
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 58; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, p. 31.
DARMC Contributors: Kelly Gibson, Eva Helfenstein, Ece Turnator

Praemonstratensians 1120-1500
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 54; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, p. 28.
DARMC Contributors: Kelly Gibson

Holy Land, Christian sites, ca. 800

Christian Sites
Based on: McCormick, Michael 2011, Charlemagne's Survey of the Holy Land, Washington DC, p. 239.
DARMC Contributors: Kelly Gibson

Jerusalem Streets
Based on: McCormick, Michael 2011, Charlemagne's Survey of the Holy Land, Washington DC, p. 238.
DARMC Contributors: Kelly Gibson

Jerusalem Walls
Based on: McCormick, Michael 2011, Charlemagne's Survey of the Holy Land, Washington DC, p. 238.
DARMC Contributors: Kelly Gibson

Jerusalem: Main Shrines
Based on: McCormick, Michael 2011, Charlemagne's Survey of the Holy Land, Washington DC, p. 238.
DARMC Contributors: Kelly Gibson

 

Medieval Bishoprics

Map Sources

France Dioceses ca.1000

Ecclesiastical Province Boundaries
Based on: Parisse, Michel, and Jacqueline Leuridan (eds.) 1994, Atlas de la France de l'an mil: état de nos connaissances, Paris.
DARMC Contributors: Leland Grigoli, Brendan Maione-Downing

Dioceses
Based on: Parisse, Michel, and Jacqueline Leuridan (eds.) 1994, Atlas de la France de l'an mil: état de nos connaissances, Paris.
DARMC Contributors: Leland Grigoli, Brendan Maione-Downing

Crusades 1096-1254

Crusader Cities
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 32-3.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

1st Crusade (1096 - 1099)
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 32-3.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

2nd Crusade (1147 - 1149)
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 32-3.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

3rd Crusade (1189-1192)
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 32-3.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

4th Crusade (1202-1204)
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 32-3.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

5th Crusade (1217-1221)
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 32-3.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

5th Crusade (1228-1229)
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 32-3.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

Crusade of 1101
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 32-3.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

Crusade of Henry VI (1197-1198)
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 32-3.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

Crusade of Louis IX (1248-1254)
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 32-3.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

Crusader States
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 32-3.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

Islamic Centers C7-C15

Islamic Cities
Based on: Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 15-7, 44-6.
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

Islamic Area
Based on: Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 15-7, 44-6.
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

Vikings C7-C10

Viking and Norman movements (C7-C10)
Based on: Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, p. 13; Ditchburn, David and MacLean, Simon (eds.) 2007, Atlas of Medieval Europe, 2nd edn, London and New York, p. 55
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

Areas influenced or settled by Vikings (C7-C10)
Based on: Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, p. 13; Ditchburn, David and MacLean, Simon (eds.) 2007, Atlas of Medieval Europe, 2nd edn, London and New York, p. 55
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

 

Kingdoms and Political Boundaries

Papal States C8-C13

Early Papal States
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 33.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

Papal States Innocent III
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 33.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

 

Kingdoms & Towns (ca. AD814)

Major Towns (ca. AD814)
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Matthew Polk

Kingdoms (ca. AD814)
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Matthew Polk

Eastern Europe C9-C12

Early Slavic Missions
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, pp. 29, 44; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 19, 36, 61, 90.
DARMC Contributors: Jakub J. Kabala, Matthew Polk

Bavarian Colonization C9-C12
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, pp. 29, 44; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 19, 36, 61, 90.
DARMC Contributors: Jakub J. Kabala, Matthew Polk

Great Moravia C9
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, pp. 29, 44; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 19, 36, 61, 90.
DARMC Contributors: Jakub J. Kabala, Matthew Polk

Early Slavic Missions Lines
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, pp. 29, 44; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 19, 36, 61, 90.
DARMC Contributors: Jakub J. Kabala, Matthew Polk

Great Moravia C9 Border
Based on: Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, pp. 29, 44; Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 19, 36, 61, 90.
DARMC Contributors: Jakub J. Kabala, Matthew Polk

Treaty of Verdun (843)
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Johann Ahlfeldt

Flanders & Picardy ca. 1000

Flanders & Picardy
Based on: Parisse, Michel, and Jacqueline Leuridan (eds.) 1994, Atlas de la France de l'an mil: état de nos connaissances, Paris, pp. 18-24.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk

Flanders Castellanies
Based on: Parisse, Michel, and Jacqueline Leuridan (eds.) 1994, Atlas de la France de l'an mil: état de nos connaissances, Paris, pp. 18-24.
DARMC Contributors: Matthew Polk
Notes: Europe Countries represents the countries of Europe.

England and France C10-C13

Towns
Based on: Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, p. 73.
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

Region
Based on: Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, p. 73.
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

Reconquest Spain-Iberia C10-C13

Reconquista Towns
Based on: Ditchburn, David and MacLean, Simon (eds.) 2007, Atlas of Medieval Europe, 2nd edn, London and New York, p. 43; Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

Reconquista Progress
Based on: Ditchburn, David and MacLean, Simon (eds.) 2007, Atlas of Medieval Europe, 2nd edn, London and New York, p. 43; Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

Ecclesiastical organization after the Reconquest
Based on: Ditchburn, David and MacLean, Simon (eds.) 2007, Atlas of Medieval Europe, 2nd edn, London and New York, p. 43; Jedin, Hubert, Latourette, Kenneth Scott, and Martin, Jochen (eds.) 1987, Atlas zur Kirchengeschichte: die christlichen Kirchen in Geschichte und Gegenwart, rev. Jochen Martin, Freiburg, p. 60
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

German Empire, Royal Fiscal and Family Possessions under the Salian Dynasty (1024-1125)
Based on: Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, pp. 22-3, 76.
DARMC Contributors: Jakub J. Kabala

Kingdoms & Towns (ca. AD1000)

Major Towns (ca. AD1000)
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Matthew Polk

Kingdoms (ca. AD1000)
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Matthew Polk

Angevin Empire, Capetian France, & Holy Roman Empire C12
Based on: Ditchburn, David and MacLean, Simon (eds.) 2007, Atlas of Medieval Europe, 2nd edn, London and New York, p. 104.
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Matthew Polk

Kingdoms & Towns (ca. AD1200)

Major Towns (ca. AD1200)
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Matthew Polk

Kingdoms (ca. AD1200)
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Matthew Polk

House of Burgundy C14-C15
Based on: Bengtson, Hermann and Milojčić, Vladimir 1995, Grosser historischer Weltatlas, 2, Munich, p. 117.
DARMC Contributors: Kelly Gibson, Matthew Polk

Kingdoms & Towns (ca. AD1450)

Major Towns (ca. AD1450)
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Matthew Polk

Kingdoms (ca. AD1450)
Based on: --
DARMC Contributors: Darryl Campbell, Nathaniel Donoghue, Kelly Gibson, Matthew Polk

Historical Basemap: Cassini France C18

Cassini Map
Based on: 
DARMC Contributors: